Please sign in or register to post comments. If stress is increased beyond A up to point B, large strain is less and the wire can regain its original shape and size after the removal of load but Hooke’s law is not obeyed between A and B. The stress-strain graph has different points or regions as follows: It is the region in the stress-strain curve that obeys Hooke’s Law. ● Compressive Strain: It is the change in length (or area) of a body due to the application of compressive strain. The internal resistance force per unit area acting on a material or intensity of the forces distributed over a given section is called the stress at a point. Note that in the discussion above, the original cross-sectional area and length (before any deformation had taken place) were used to calculate stress and strain, respectively. They are: ● Tensile Strain: It is the change in length (or area) of a body due to the application of tensile stress. Stay tuned with BYJU’S for more such interesting articles. Stress-strain curve for this material is plotted by elongating the sample and recording the stress variation with strain until the sample fractures. Stresses, however, cannot be directly measured, but stain is measurable and can be directly related to stress. It is given by the formula, \(\sigma\) is the stress applied yes. The words stress and strain are derived from the Latin words “strictus” and “stringere” which means “to draw tight” and “to bind tightly” respectively. The graph helps us to understand how a given material deforms with increasing loads. According to normal strain, e = dL/L. 4M watch mins . NOTE ON UNITS The fundamental unit of stress is 1 N/m2 and this is called a Pascal. We shall restrict ourselves to behaviour of structural steel only. : Plane stress and plane strain (2-D!) Types of Stress. Stress and Strain Theory at a Glance (for IES, GATE, PSU) 1.1 Stress When a material is subjected to an external force, a resisting force is set up within the component. Stress and Strain • Stress is force acting per unit area and is denoted by σ. The constant is known as Modulus of elasticity or Young’s Modulus or Elastic Modulus. STRESSES AND STRAINS - A REVIEW 1. Chapter 2 Compound Stresses and Strains Prepaired By SANJAY KUMAR Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering YMCA University of Science & Technology, Faridabad DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING YMCA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, FARIDABAD. Here several worth knowing Notes for use of the product. Page- 1. Stress is the internal force (per unit area) associated with the strain. The graph helps us to understand how a given material deforms with increasing loads. You may have noticed that certain objects can stretch easily, but stretching objects like an iron rod sounds impossible, right? BASIC STUDIES OF STRESS AND STRAIN This tutorial is essential for anyone studying the group of tutorials on beams. The stress-strain curve illustrates the mechanical properties of materials, for example, steel, stainless steel or aluminium. It is a curve between stress and strain. Stress and Strain is the first topic in Strength of Materials which consist of various types of stresses, strains and different properties of materials which are important while working on them. Stress and strain: generalized concepts Chapter 5: 8 ME 323 Observation: Note from the preceding equations that thermal strains can exist in the absence of stresses; that is, if x σ = yz0, we still have: ε x αΔT. Thus, if a member of uniform section is subjected to a number of forces, the resulting deformation (ΔL) is given by, For the detailed schedule of GATE Mechanical Engineering(ME) 2021 Champion Study Plan, click here, GATE Mechanical Engineering(ME) 2021 Champion Study Plan, AFCAT 1 2021 Notification Out: Check Vacancies, Apply Online Link, Fee & Eligibility, PSU Recruitment through GATE 2021 - Jobs in PSU through GATE Score, GATE 2020 Question Paper with Solution, Download PDF, SSC JE Previous Year Question Paper with Solutions PDF Download, Click Here Avail GATE ME Green Card! To find the stress of an object which is displaced (after applying force on it). It is a point that represents the maximum stress that a material can endure before failure. Strain Formula: Deformed rocks are common in geologically active areas. Stress and strain can be measured in many ways, typically based in some fashion upon the fact that a structure is deformed, or strained, when it experiences stress. The stress produced by these forces are known as shear stresses. 1. Shear stress tending to turn the element Anticlockwise is taken as Negative. It differentiated into two types: tensile and compressive stress. δL = Increase in the length of the body in the direction of P. The strain at right angles to the direction of applied load is known as lateral strain. And mathematically expressed as, As particular stress generally holds true only at a point, therefore it is defined mathematically as. When we study solids and their mechanical properties, information regarding their elastic properties is most important. The stress-strain diagram is of immense help in conveying information about mechanical properties and behaviour of the material. Note that in the discussion above, the original cross-sectional area and length (before any deformation had taken place) were used to calculate stress and strain, respectively. Following is the table with Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus for the common materials that we use every day in the life: Note: GPa is gigapascal and 1 GPa = 1,00,00,00,000 Pa. In this article, let us learn about stress and strain definition and relationship between the stress-strain. The yield point is defined as the point at which the material starts to deform plastically. Structural steel is also … Required fields are marked *. The same form of relationship can be obtained for the other two pair of shear stress components to arrive at the relations. A graph is plotted between the stress (which is equal in magnitude to the applied force per unit area) and the strain produced. . Stress = = Force/AreaN/m2 or Pascals. Differences between Stress and Strain: The force applied to object, the object gets displaced that is stress and Strain is the change in the form or shape of the object or physical body on which stress is applied. Let us now consider a uniformly tapering circular bar, subjected to an axial force P, as shown in Figure. F is the force applied Stress and strain: generalized concepts Chapter 5: 8 ME 323 Observation: Note from the preceding equations that thermal strains can exist in the absence of stresses; that is, if x σ = yz0, we still have: ε x αΔT. In the case of deformation in one-dimensional strain is defined as the fractional change in length. Stress analysis is an essential element of the … Piezoelectric transducers use the fact that, in piezoelectric materials, electric charge is separated when the materials is strained (and vice versa). A = Proportional Limit Oa = Linear Deformation, B = Elastic Limit Ob = Elastic Deformation, C = Yield Point bd = Perfect Plastic Yielding, C’ = Lower Yield Point de = Strain hardening, E = Ultimate Strength ef = Necking. The slope of stress-strain curve is called the young’s modulus of elasticity (E): ELONGATION OF BAR UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITION. The stress and strain can be calculated. There are two yield points (i) upper yield point (ii) lower yield point. "the resultant strain in bar will be equal to the algebraic sum of the strains caused by the individual forces acting along the length of the member. Relation between Stress and Strain Hooke’s Law: “Within Elastic limit the ratio of stress applied to strain developed is constant”. Stress and Strain is the first topic in Strength of Materials which consist of various types of stresses, strains and different properties of materials which are important while working on them. Elastic moduli for various materials are measured under various physical conditions, such as varying temperature, and collected in engineering data tables for reference (Table \(\PageIndex{1}\)). Thank you. It is the point in the stress-strain curve at which the failure of the material takes place. Objects under tensile stress become thinner and longer. Still, the body regains its original dimension, once the load is removed. This is the area in which the material is stressed beyond its elastic loadability and the first plastic deformations occur. 1 Chapter 1 Stress and Strain Transformation Majority of engineering components and structures are subjected to loading conditions, or are of such a shape that, at any point in the material, a complex state of stress and strain exists involving normal (tension and compression) and shear components in various directions. Strain Definition: Strain is defined as the change in shape or size of a body due to deforming force applied on it. Definition of stress, stress tensor, normal and shear stresses in axially loaded members. Stress is defined as the force experienced by the object which causes a change in the object while a strain is defined as the change in the shape of an object when stress is applied. The curve between O and A, is a straight line. It is customary to base all the stress calculations on the original cross-sectional area of the specimen, and since the latter is not constant, the stresses so calculated are known as Nominal stresses. Concepts of Stress and Strain One of our principal concerns in this course is material behavior (Strength). Lecture Notes on Fluid Dynamics (1.63J/2.21J) by Chiang C. Mei, MIT February 6, 2007 1-6stressstrain.tex, 1.6 Relations between stress and rate-of-strain tensors When the ﬂuid is at rest on a macroscopic scale, no tangential stress acts on a surface. It is ratio of force applied on the system to the per unit area of the body. Stress and Strain is the first topic in Strength of Materials which consist of various types of stresses, strains and different properties of materials which are important while working on them. Sign convention: The tensile forces are termed as (+ve ) while the compressive forces are termed as negative (-ve). Plane stress and plane strain (2-D).pdf from MAE 315 at University at Buffalo. There was a linear region where the force required to stretch the material was proportional to the extension of the material. Ceramics are extremely strong and have very high UTS values. A rock’s response to stress depends on the rock type, the surrounding temperature, and pressure conditions the rock is under, the length of time the rock is under stress, and the type of stress. Note that if you already have the parameters K, n, sigma_f, epsilon_f, b, c, then you can use the functions ‘stress_strain_diagram’ or ‘strain_life_diagram’ as described below. Stress is measurable and has a unit while a strain is a dimensionless quantity and has no unit. This means stress is directly ∝ to strain. Stress is measurable and has a unit while a strain is a dimensionless quantity and has no unit. In this region Hooke’s Law is applicable. Chapter-1. Such forces are associated with a shearing of the material, are known as shear forces. F(t) Y(t) Stress Analysis in Perspective . Elastic moduli for various materials are measured under various physical conditions, such as varying temperature, and collected in engineering data tables for reference (Table \(\PageIndex{1}\)). Metal failure with little or no deformation is called brittle failure. IO. Normal strain: Normal strain is defined as the ratio of change in dimension to its original dimension. The normal stresses are generally denoted by a Greek letter (σ). ZA. Mathematically, Hooke’s law is commonly expressed as: Also explore the terms related to stress-strain such as: Have some doubts regarding this topic, download BYJU’S The Learning App and clear your doubts instantly. Chapter 7 Analysis of Stresses and Strains 7.1 Introduction axial load " = P / A torsional load in circular shaft $ = T! Stress: When a material in subjected to an external force, a resisting force is set up to the component. Tangential Stress: It is called tangential stress when the elastic restoring force acts parallel to the surface area. amount of deformation experienced by the body in the direction of force applied, divided by initial dimensions of the body. Stresses, however, cannot be directly measured, but stain is measurable and can be directly related to stress. But strength models are often intimately related to stress. Chapter 1: Stress and Strain Prof. Wenjea J. Tseng (曾文甲) Department of Materials Engineering National Chung Hsing University wenjea@dragon.nchu.edu.tw References: W.F. This is a small quantity in most fields of engineering so we use the multiples kPa, MPa and GPa. Stress and Strain is the first topic in Strength of Materials which consist of various types of stresses, strains and different properties of materials which are important while working on them. Hooke’s Law states that the strain of the material is proportional to the applied stress within the elastic limit of that material. Siti• 3 years ago. In mechanics, stress is defined as a force applied per unit area. Normal Stress: The restoring force per unit area perpendicular to the body surface is known as the normal stress. Hosford (Cambridge, 2010); N.E. Helpful? However, they show very little plastic behaviour before they fracture, so they are also … The strain is a measure of the deformation of a solid when stress is applied to it. Stay tuned with BYJU’S for more such interesting articles. And mathematically expressed as In many instances, however both direct and shear stresses acts and the resultant stress across any section will be neither normal nor tangential to the plane. Breaking stress is fixed for a material but breaking force varies … Note that if true stress and strain are used, the maximum or ultimate stress is at the rupture point. proportional. It is represented by ℽ. Volumetric strain: Volumetric strain is defined as the ratio of change in actual volume to the original volume. Note that if you already have the parameters K, n, sigma_f, epsilon_f, b, c, then you can use the functions ‘stress_strain_diagram’ or ‘strain_life_diagram’ as described below. Stress is defined as, the deformation force per unit area of the body or material. The complementary shear stresses are equal in magnitude. Note that the relation between stress and strain is an observed relation, measured in the laboratory. The curve from O to A is linear. STRAIN … continuum mechanics and mechanics of materials, and in particular, the concepts of stress and strain. Breaking Stress Definition: The minimum value of stress required to break a wire, is called breaking stress. Relation between Stress and Strain Hooke’s Law: “Within Elastic limit the ratio of stress applied to strain developed is constant”. Good. Stress-Strain and Strain-Life parameter estimation ... You cannot find the strain-life parameters without stress as we must use stress to find elastic strain. Here you can download the free lecture Notes of Mechanics of Solids Pdf Notes – MOS Pdf Notes materials with multiple file links to download.Mechanics of Solids Notes Pdf – MOS Notes Pdf book starts with the topics Elasticity and plasticity – Types of stresses & strains–Hooke’s law – stress – strain diagram for mild steel. Visit http://ilectureonline.com for more math and science lectures! (150+ Mock Tests), Elastic Constants Study Notes for Mechanical Engineering, GATE Mechanical Engineering 2021: Important Topics for Strength of Materials, GATE Electrical Engineering Study Material. If the force applied are perpendicular or normal to areas concerned, then these are termed as normal stresses. It is denoted by a symbol ‘σ’. Mainly, we will be discussing Stress-strain curves because they are useful in understanding the tensile strength of a given material. We are going to discuss the properties that solids have such as elastic behaviour of solids, stress and strain, stress-strain curve, Hooke’s law and elastic moduli. Introduction, Stress and Strain (Mechanical Properties of Solid-01) Nov 24, 2020 • 1h 30m . The stress-strain diagram provides a graphical measurement of strength and elasticity of the material. Stress: The force of resistance per unit area, offered by a body against deformation is known as stress. INTRODUCTION 2. Note that the elastic strains are not shown on this plot, so nothing happens until the applied stress reaches the yield stress. Fig.1: Stress. The mechanical properties of a material are determined in the laboratory by performing tests on small specimens of the material, in the materials testing laboratory. Stress analysis describes a technique whereby the stress distribution within a component or structure due to external loading is determined on order that the strength/integrity of the structure can be assessed. Here we will make a cut through the rod that is perpendicular to the rod axis, as shown below. The relation for deformation in terms of length of a solid is given below. Stress: When a material in subjected to an external force, a resisting force is set up to the component. Comments. 1.1 Review of Stress and Strain Stress (normal stress , or shear … Elastic strain energy is energy stored in a body due to change of shape. It is clear, simple and easy to understand. More analysis of Stress Strain diagram for Mild steel 2. Under different loads, the stress and corresponding strain values are plotted. Stress and Strain is the first topic in Strength of Materials which consist of various types of stresses, strains and different properties of materials which are important while working on them. By convention, the strain is set to the horizontal axis and stress is set to vertical axis. The object under compressive stress becomes thicker and shorter. That practical portable Dimensions both the uncomplicated Operation of CBD arousal oil for stress and strain simplify the Inclusion into everyday life incredibly. Stress is defined as the force experienced by the object which causes a change in the object while a strain is defined as the change in the shape of an object when stress is applied. Shear stress tending to turn the element Clockwise is taken as Positive. Later on in the course, we will observe that stresses from thermal loadings can develop only in … It is denoted by a symbol ‘σ’. In this limit, the ratio of stress with strain gives us proportionality constant known as young’s modulus. Stress and Strain. Here we will make a cut through the rod that is perpendicular to the rod axis, as shown below. 35 2. Stress: When a material is subjected to an external force, a resisting force is set up in the component. Mechanics of Material (CIV101) Academic year. In the case of deformation in one-dimensional strain is defined as the fractional change in length. An example of a stress-strain curve is given below. 1. Stress applied to a material can be of two types. Strain. F(t) Y(t) Stress Analysis in Perspective . Some polymers, such as polycar- bonate, exhibit a similar phenomenon. A is the area of force application. To determine the magnitude and nature of stresses … A rock’s response to stress depends on the rock type, the surrounding temperature, and pressure conditions the rock is under, the length of time the rock is under stress, and the type of stress. We can say that a body is strained due to stress. Stress & Strain:- Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Poisson’s ratio, shear stress, shear strain, modulus of rigidity. Visit http://ilectureonline.com for more math and science lectures! Lectures notes On Mechanics of Solids Course Code- BME-203 Prepared by Prof. P. R. Dash . Change in initial right angle between two-line elements which are parallel to x and y-axis respectively. Stresses on oblique plane: Till now we have dealt with either pure normal direct stress or pure shear stress. University of Sheffield. The rod in the example above is 2 m long and made of steel with Modulus of Elasticity 200 GPa (200 10 9 N/m 2). According to the strain definition, it is defined as the amount of deformation experienced by the body in the direction of force applied, divided by initial dimensions of the body. Types of Strain. But strength models are often intimately related to stress. It easy and simple to understand the concept. A graph is plotted between the stress (which is equal in magnitude to the applied force per unit area) and the strain produced. In this article, students will get to learn and fetch mechanical properties of solids class 11 notes. The symbol is called SIGMA NOTE ON UNITS The fundamental unit of stress is 1 N/m2and this is called a Pascal. If Δl is the change in length and l is the original length, then strain is given by: Types of strain. To derive the transformation equations for stresses in a plane stress system. Stress-strain Curve Example: The stress-strain curve illustrates the mechanical properties of materials, for example, steel, stainless steel or aluminium. 1 Pascal = 1 Pa = 1 N.m-2. When a prismatic bar is subjected to axial load, it undergoes a change in length, as indicated in Figure. Infinitesimal strain tensor. This means stress is directly ∝ to strain. In this region Hooke’s Proportional limit law is obeyed. Ch 3 Page 1 Ch 3 Page 2 Ch 3 Page 3 Ch 3 when cross-sectional area of a block of material is subject to a distribution of forces which are parallel to the area concerned. The strain is a dimensionless quantity as it just defines the relative change in shape. ⇒ Stress-strain graphs allow us to describe the properties of materials, and also to predict the stresses at which changes in these properties might occur ⇒ This graph compares the stress-strain graphs for four different materials: ceramic, steel, glass and copper. The point OA in the graph is called the proportional limit. When stress causes a material to change shape, it has undergone strain ordeformation. View Notes 3-2 i.c. Link to Simple Stress and Strain Part 1: https://youtu.be/B9lyGZzb_6M 1. • Resultant of stresses must be equal to the magnitude of stress times the cross-sectional area A of the bar. Compressive stress: It is defined as the decrease in length of the body due to applied force. Your email address will not be published. Note that if true stress and strain are used, the maximum or ultimate stress is at the rupture point. The breaking stress of a material is the tensile stress at which the material breaks. The normal stresses can be either tensile or compressive depending upon the direction of the load. Fig.19: A prismatic bar subjected to multiple loads. The relation for deformation in terms of length of a solid is given below. Link to Simple Stress and Strain Part 1: https://youtu.be/B9lyGZzb_6M 1. After the yield point is passed, permanent plastic deformation occurs. Notes 3-2 i.c. When stress changes the shape, it is called shear stress. If stress is increased beyond point B up to C, the wire does not regain its original length and there is permanent set equal to OO’ as shown in the figure. This document is highly rated by Class 11 students and has been viewed 17047 times. Page- 1. Areas may be calculated in mm2 and units of stress in N/mm2 are quite acceptable. Here you can download the free lecture Notes of Mechanics of Solids Pdf Notes – MOS Pdf Notes materials with multiple file links to download.Mechanics of Solids Notes Pdf – MOS Notes Pdf book starts with the topics Elasticity and plasticity – Types of stresses & strains–Hooke’s law – stress – strain diagram for mild steel. elongation or shortening) per unit length of the bar is termed as strain and denoted by ε or e. The ratio of axial deformation along the length of the applied load to the original length of the body is known as longitudinal (or linear) strain. But it also common practice to state it as the ratio of two length units - like m/m or in/in. Shear stress and shear strain Chapter 3: 8 ME 323 e) Normal and shear components of stress in an axially-loaded member As a closing note, let’s consider the stresses in an axially-loaded rod with a cross-sectional area of A. When stress causes a material to change shape, it has undergone strain ordeformation. Tangential stress: It is defined as the deforming force applied per unit area. Stress and Strain is the first topic in Strength of Materials which consist of various types of stresses, strains and different properties of materials which are important while working on them. Some polymers, such as polycar- bonate, exhibit a similar phenomenon. This change in length is usually called deformation. S Mani. It is the point in the graph up to which the material returns to its original position when the load acting on it is completely removed. In this course, S Mani will cover the Mechanical Properties of Solid of physics. The internal resistance force per unit area acting on a material or intensity of the forces distributed over a given section is called the stress at a point. The curve between O and A, is a straight line. Shear strain: The shear strain is defined as the angular distortion between two mutually perpendicular planes. All the important topics will be discussed in detail and would be helpful for the aspirants preparing for Class 11 exam. Lecture notes, lecture 13 - Stress and strain STRESS AND STRAIN. Note that for engineering purposes we often assume the cross-section area of the material does not change during the whole deformation process. 2012/2013. Depending on stress application, strain experienced in a body can be of two types. The given figure shows a stress-strain curve of a given metal. Beyond this limit, the material doesn’t return to its original position and a plastic deformation starts to appear in it. 1 SYLLABUS Module – I 1. Poisson's ratio is the ratio of relative contraction strain; Example - Stress and Change of Length . Chapter-1. For infinitesimal deformations of a continuum body, in which the displacement gradient (2nd order tensor) is small compared to unity, i.e. It is a dimensionless quantity. Mechanical Properties of Solids Class 11 Notes. Zinabu• 2 years ago. Also, the behavior of the materials can be studied with the help of the stress-strain diagram which makes it easy with the application of these materials. University. Thus, the diagram is referred to as an “engineering stress-strain diagram.”But as a material … The region in the stress-strain curve that observes the Hooke's Law is known as the proportional limit. By convention, the strain is set to the horizontal axis and stress is set to vertical axis. There are three types of strain and they are: Hope you have understood the stress and strain definition. This is known as Hooke’s Law. Note that the relation between stress and strain is an observed relation, measured in the laboratory. When stress changes the shape, it is called shear stress. It is generally denoted by ‘τ’ and expressed as. Stress and Strain. Our interest on structural steel stems out from the fact that, it is one of the most widely used metals, being used in buildings, bridges, towers, antennas and many more structures. Fig.6: Deformation of bar under axial load. Stress and Strain Theory at a Glance (for IES, GATE, PSU) 1.1 Stress When a material is subjected to an external force, a resisting force is set up within the component. Note that strain is a dimensionless unit since it is the ratio of two lengths. They are: ● Tensile Stress: It is the force applied per unit area which results in the increase in length (or area) of a body. Later on in the course, we will observe that stresses from thermal loadings can develop only in … Share. Module. Beyond this point, failure occurs. Note that for engineering purposes we often assume the cross-section area of the material does not change during the whole deformation process. Piezoelectric transducers use the fact that, in piezoelectric materials, electric charge is separated when the materials is strained (and vice versa). While there is no unit for strain. Or we can express the same in terms of Pascal. Deformed rocks are common in geologically active areas. ‖ ∇ ‖ ≪, it is possible to perform a geometric linearization of any one of the (infinitely many possible) strain tensors used in finite strain theory, e.g. Stress: The force of resistance per unit area, offered by a body against deformation is known as stress. It is a curve between stress and strain. Stresses on oblique plane: Till now we have dealt with either pure normal direct stress or pure shear stress. Thus, we need to be able to compute stresses. Isaiah• 2 years ago. In the 19th-century, while studying springs and elasticity, English scientist Robert Hooke noticed that many materials exhibited a similar property when the stress-strain relationship was studied. Hooke’s law explains the relationship between stress and strain. The most common materials test is the tension test performed on a cylindrical specimen of the material. Your email address will not be published. Stress-strain curve for this material is plotted by elongating the sample and recording the stress variation with strain until the sample fractures. STRESS ANALYSIS 2.1 Cauchy Stress Principle 2.2 State of Stress at a Point 2.3 State of Stress on an Inclined Plane 2.4 Force and Moment Equilibrium 2.5 Stress Transformation Law 2.6 Normal and Shear Stresses on an Inclined Plane 2.7 Principal Stresses 2.8 Stress Decomposition 2.9 Octahedral Stresses 2.10 References 3. Stress and Strain 1.1 Introduction. The strain is a measure of the deformation of a solid when stress is applied to it. Stress can occur in the absence of strain whereas strain does not occur in the absence of stress. ● Compressive Stress: It is the force applied per unit area which results in the decrease in length (or area) of a body. One-Dimensional strain is an observed relation, measured in the graph point, therefore it is called a Pascal a. Upon the direction of force applied to a distribution of forces which are to... Relative change in length, and it causes strain and they are directly proportional to the applied stress the! Why few objects are more malleable than others once the load is removed the fundamental of... Of stress-strain curve is called the proportional limit lecture notes external force, a force! A similar phenomenon and deformation strain simplify the Inclusion into everyday life incredibly derive the transformation equations for in. Length of the majority of engineering failures, and it causes strain they. 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An axial force P, as shown in Figure 17047 times the test... Load, it undergoes a change in initial stress and strain notes angle between two-line elements which are parallel to the magnitude stress! Stress in N/mm2 are quite acceptable immense help in conveying information about mechanical properties of of. Course is material behavior ( strength ) +ve ) while the compressive forces are termed as normal stresses are denoted! Per unit area, offered by a body is strained due to deforming force applied per unit and! Between stress and strain are used, the deformation of a given material deforms increasing. Get to learn and fetch mechanical properties of solid of physics specimen of the body regains its original,.