Am. They were asked to hold their breath “for as long as you are able or until you have to give up,” and the experimenter timed the duration with a stopwatch (out of participants' views). Responses were collected through the computer keyboard. To avoid the confounding effect of other teacher and school level variables, the four important variables, schools’ emphasis on academic success (EAS), safty and orderliness of school (SOS), teachers’ confidence in teaching science (CTS), and instructional engagement of students (IES), identified by Martin et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Study 1 tested hypothesis 1 by examining the effect of environmental orderliness on self-regulation in a consumption context. Science 322:1681. doi: 10.1126/science.1161405, Kinchla, R. A. Soc. Physical Orderliness Changes Decisions and Behavior, 4 behaviors that are not decidedly moral. The measurement of individual differences in originality. (2006) manipulated abstract/concrete levels and assessed their effects on self-control and the underlying psychological processes. Psychol. Psychol. Investing in creativity. Soc. (2012). Received: 22 February 2020; Accepted: 08 June 2020; Published: 31 July 2020. Gen. 136, 610–622. To increase the diversity of the manipulation paradigm, Experiment 2 asked participants to observe and describe pictures to prime environmental orderliness. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.81.6.1001, Guilford, J. P. (1956). 119, 304–320. I was really surprised by all my results, but especially orderliness and openness. Soc. 1 = not at all, 7 = very messy” and “Do you think that the scene in the picture is orderly? doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.3.774, Niedernhuber, J., Kastenmueller, A., and Fischer, P. (2014). This experiment offers the new perspective of cognitive persistence to understand the influence of environmental orderliness on creative thinking. 23, 1215–1223. Stimuli used for construal levels in studies 1A–1B. Therefore, the conceptual association found in study 1 might result in the common positive affective experiences induced by both high-level construal and orderliness (positive) versus the negative affect experiences triggered by low-level construal and disorderliness. For example, when holding their breath, individuals must try to restrain the body's demand for air. Therefore, we thought that self-control resource depletion might have a negative impact on cognitive persistence; accordingly, compared with an orderly environment, a disorderly environment that could cause resource depletion was detrimental for cognitive persistence. Driving skills : Driving skills is needed before driving, it is important to go through the normal driving school process before prescribed by the authority concerned before making any attempt to drive.We demonstrate orderliness in driving by observing the traffic light and traffic regulations. Available online at:, Chiu, F. C. (2014). This experiment used a 2 (environmental orderliness: order vs. disorder) ×2 (trait self-control: high self-control vs. low self-control) between-subjects design. The words representing psychological distance were all taken from Bar-Anan et al. How to Maintain Cleanliness and Orderliness At Home Start the Morning Right. In experiment 3B, responses were marginally significantly faster in the incongruent condition than in the congruent condition, t(32) = −1.74, p = 0.09. Taking stock of self-control: a meta-analysis of how trait self-control relates to a wide range of behaviors. The participants with low trait self-control have fewer self-control resources (Baumeister, 2016). In summary, Experiment 1 demonstrated that an orderly environment was more beneficial than a disorderly one in improving participants' persistence in the breath-holding task, which was in line with the environmental orderliness main effect hypothesis. Psychol. What is another word for orderliness? More importantly, trait self-control could moderate the effect of environmental orderliness on state self-control, which supported the moderating hypothesis. Young infants visual expectations for symmetric and asymmetric stimulus sequences. There is a compensation matching effect, that is, individuals with high and low trait self-control need the matching level of environmental orderliness to achieve the best overall effect of orderliness on self-control behaviors and creative thinking. High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Thus, providing a better, clean and safe surrounding to the employees is a duty of the employer. miRNA-21 is a microRNA that is highly enriched in endothelial cells. Temporal construal. Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02062.x, Bar-Anan, Y., Liberman, N., and Trope, Y. The benefits of cognitive disfluency. Mark. Orderly, methodical, systematic characterize that which is neat, in order, and planned. Distancing the present self from the past and the future: psychological distance in anxiety and depression. Emergence of simple-cell receptive field properties by learning a sparse code for natural images. The data from the remaining 45 participants (20 males, mean age = 19.13 ± 0.99 years) in study 1A and 36 participants (16 males, mean age = 19.22 ± 1.37 years) in study 1B were used. By using an Implicit Association Test (IAT), Bar-Anan et al. (2011). Research involving self-control could also explain the findings of studies 1A and 1B. Psychol. First, we found that the mechanisms previously mentioned, such as the sense of personal control, executive control, and heuristic processing, are closely related to self-control resources. Self-control refers to one's capacity to alter one's responses, especially to bring them into line with standards, such as one's ideas, values, and social expectations. Various studies have revealed that disorderly environments encourage impulsive and disorderly behaviors such as rule-breaking and crime (Geis and Ross, 1998; Braga et al., 1999; Linares et al., 2001; Keizer et al., 2008; Vohs et al., 2013; Chae and Zhu, 2014; Bossuyt et al., 2016; Kotabe et al., 2016). The results showed that the scores of the participants with high trait self-control in the disorderly condition (Mdisorder = 3.19, SD = 0.62) were higher than in the orderly condition (Morder = 2.81, SD = 0.41), F(1, 118) = 9.03, p = 0.003, ηp2 = 0.07. However, there was no difference in the number of highly creative ideas of the participants with low trait self-control between the two conditions (Morder = 1.55, SD = 1.40, Mdisorder = 1.34, SD = 1.23), F(1, 118) <1, p > 0.05, ηp2 = 0.003. Our moderating hypotheses were supported: the results revealed that an orderly environment was only beneficial to behavioral self-control for individuals with low trait self-control, whereas a disorderly environment only had a positive effect on the creative thinking of those with high trait self-control. Per Sci. The significant interaction in Top 2 scores also supported our moderating prediction, F(1, 118) = 6.03, p = 0.016, ηp2 = 0.05. The design was the same as in 1A, except that only the construal level or psychologically distant words were varied in each block. Creat. A median split was used to sort participants into high vs. low self-control groups. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-9125.1999.tb00496.x, Canfield, R. L., and Haith, M. M. (1991). Guilford (1967) indicated that creative thinking includes divergent and convergent thinking. Honken, N., Ralston, P. A., and Tretter, T. R. (2016). Shun Zhang, and Dr. Qi Yu for their support in the evaluation of creative thinking, and Sujie Meng for her help in the data collection of Experiment 1. The influence of physical order or disorder on the divergent thinking and prototype heuristic effect of an individual. The procedure for 1A is illustrated in Figure 1. 45, 1127–1131. For instance, in experiment 1A, half of the participants completed an IAT with orderliness words and category items sharing a key in the first combined block, and half of the participants completed an IAT with orderliness words and exemplar items sharing a key in the first combined block. To Here are some effect of poor housekeeping; Fire as a result of oily rags left in an area where hot work is performed, or due to the accumulation of combustible dust. The effect of the resulting orderliness was a greatly (2012). The perception of environmental orderliness differed across conditions, t(120) = −22.68, p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 4.11. As we have mentioned, disorder perception or experience would elicit negative affect, including feelings of powerlessness (Geis and Ross, 1998), distress (Cutrona et al., 2000), lack of safety (Perkins et al., 2010), depression (Ross and Jang, 2000), and anxiety. Specifically, environmental order could be beneficial to state self-control only for the low trait self-control individuals, and environmental disorder could be beneficial to creative thinking only for the high trait self-control individuals. It is a situation where laws and orders are obeyed and authority are respected. Psychol. It was consistent with the main effect of environmental orderliness hypothesis. Pers. doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2007.10.002, Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., and Tice, D. M. (2007). 46, 1049–1054. To eliminate interference of the baseline difference on the results, we first calculated difference scores by subtracting the baseline measurement (Time 1) from the post-measurement (Time 2). Soc. The convergent results of studies 2A–5B showed that people tended to associate psychological proximity with orderliness and psychological distance with disorderliness more than psychological proximity with disorderliness and psychological distance with orderliness, and these findings verified hypothesis 4. 81, 1001–1013. On the one hand, although environmental disorder also depleted part of their resources, the cognitive persistence of the participants with high trait self-control was not significantly impaired by the condition of disorder, because they had more reserves of self-control resources (Baumeister, 2016), which were enough to compensate for the resource depletion caused by the disorderly environment. The results also showed that the difference scores in time of those in the orderly room (Morder = 6.58, SD = 8.12) was larger than that of those in the disorderly room (Mdisorder = 3.74, SD = 8.65), F(1, 148) = 4.10, p = 0.045, ηp2 = 0.03. Self-control and creative thinking play important roles in promoting individuals' development and social progress. Recently, from a cognitive perspective, Kotabe (2014) proposed that the operationalization of disorder perception was a state in which things are in non-patterned and non-coherent positions, whereas order perception is the reverse state. Therefore, environmental orderliness has a stable effect on creative thinking, whether it is primed by pictures or manipulated by a real environment. Three measurement indices of creative thinking under different conditions were analyzed. Commodity display is an important cue for consumers’ prediction of the goods they purchase. J. R. Soc. Health Soc. In summary, to explore whether there were individual differences in the dual effect of environmental orderliness and identify the common mechanism of the dual effect, the present study tested the moderating role of trait self-control in the influence of environmental orderliness on both self-control and creative thinking. Full Results Agreeableness - Moderately low, 39th The study of the relationship between environmental orderliness and creative thinking showed that disorder is more beneficial to creative thinking. Child Dev. doi: 10.1177/0956797613480186, Williams, L. E., Stein, R., and Galguera, L. (2014). (2015). Orderliness is usually comforting because of its association with predictability, and thus people are instinctively drawn to orderliness and can pursue goals confidently and interact with the environment effectively under conditions of orderliness (Harmonjones and Harmonjones, 2002). Research has shown that the perception of a threat to personal control is related to ego depletion (Fischer et al., 2007). Real-Time neural signals of disorder and order perception. 43, 379–384. To sum up, there has not been enough empirical research on whether there is a common mechanism of the dual effect of environmental orderliness and what the mechanism is. In order to better understand the relationship between trait self-control and creative thinking, as kindly suggested by one of our reviewers, we further compared the creative thinking performance of high and low trait self-control participants, respectively, in the condition of order and disorder. Furthermore, past CLT research findings have proposed that abstract, high-level construal is linked to psychologically distant cues, whereas concrete, low-level construal is linked to psychologically proximal cues. Specifically, for the participants with high trait self-control, those in the disorderly condition generated more highly creative ideas (Mdisorder = 1.62, SD = 1.32) than the participants in the orderly condition (Morder = 1.00, SD = 1.08), F(1, 118) = 3.87, p = 0.052, ηp2 = 0.03. Orderliness involves paying attention while others speak. Specifically, the average creativity scores of the participants with high trait self-control in the disorderly condition (Mdisorder = 3.01, SD = 0.42) were significantly higher than that of those in the orderly condition (Morder = 2.74, SD = 0.33), F(1, 118) = 9.32, p = 0.003, ηp2 = 0.07; there was no difference in the average scores of low self-control participants between the two conditions (Morder = 2.85, SD = 0.35; Mdisorder = 2.75, SD = 0.31), F(1, 118) = 1.21, p > 0.05, ηp2 = 0.01. On the contrary, it is a refinement and revision of this model. Affect. In his own view Edie Rules and orderliness appeal to girls from an early age, and so arithmetic in elementary school comes easily to her. These findings provide a new research perspective for the environmental orderliness literature, contribute to the understanding of the common mechanism of the dual effect, and have practical implications for the shaping and cultivation of individuals' self-control behaviors and creative thinking. Divergent thinking, as the core of creative thinking, refers to thinking in multiple directions and can reorganize current information and existing knowledge and experience to generate more unique and novel ideas (Guilford, 1956). Quar. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Orderliness means a state of being organized. A total of 124 participants (101 females; Mage = 20.38 years, SD = 1.28) volunteered to take part in the subsequent experiment, including 65 high trait self-control and 59 low trait self-control participants. Particularly, we were wondering if there was a compensation matching effect, that is, individuals with high and low trait self-control need a matching level of environmental orderliness to achieve the best overall effect of orderliness on self-control behaviors and creative thinking (low trait self-control and order; high trait self-control and disorder). Figure 3. Proc. Psychol. Too close for comfort, or too far to care? Unexpectedly, however, a disorderly environment, which has long been considered to be associated with negative consequences, has also been shown to promote creative thinking (Chen et al., 2013; Vohs et al., 2013). Masicampo, E. J., and Baumeister, R. F. (2008). Our moderating prediction was supported by the marginally significant interaction between environmental orderliness and trait self-control, F(1148) = 3.58, p = 0.06, ηp2 = 0.02. Do things by the book. Psychol. Mark. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00534.x. 74, 774–789. More importantly, the dual effect is moderated by trait self-control. In this study, we investigated the moderating effect of trait self-control on environmental orderliness, which influences both state self-control behaviors and creative thinking. The spreading of disorder. 37, 492–501. A Opt. (2013) showed that, in a disorderly environment, individuals not only performed better in fluency, flexibility, and originality, but also scored higher in the Remote Association Test and were more inclined to buy innovative products. Personal. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2008.00118.x, Fujita, K., and Roberts, J. C. (2010). Psychol. action identification and human behavior. Afterward, to assess whether our manipulation of environmental orderliness was successful, we asked two questions (i.e., “To what extent do you think this table is orderly? First, the integrated model of the interaction between self-control resources and cognitive resources argues that ego depletion inhibits the exertion of executive control, making it difficult to allocate and transfer resources for a specific cognitive task. Bull. 31871100) and Shandong Normal University Undergraduate Training Program for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (No. To increase their involvement, the participants were asked to describe the picture. Psychol. Learn Indiv Differ. In the orderly environment, low trait self-control participants produced more creative ideas than those with high trait self-control [Mlow = 1.55, SD = 1.40; Mhigh = 1.00, SD = 1.08; F(1, 118) = 3.05, p = 0.083, ηp2 = 0.03]. A balance is achieved in the painting between orderliness and unpredictability. The strength model of self-control. Toward a physiology of dual-process reasoning and judgment: lemonade, willpower, and expensive rule-based analysis. Construal level theory (CLT), a purely cognitive orientation theory, divided this abstract/concrete representation of stimuli into two levels: low- and high-level construal (Trope and Liberman, 2003; Dhar and Kim, 2007). doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2006.05.007, Trope, Y., and Liberman, N. (2010). microRNAs are a novel set of small, non-protein-coding nucleotide RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of target mRNAs. Gen. 145, 1713–1727. doi: 10.1038/nn841, Keizer, K., Lindenberg, S., and Steg, L. (2008). B. Therefore, the IAT may reflect the types of associations among orderliness/disorderliness, level of construal, and psychological distance that the present research aims to investigate. Psychol. 12, 237–241. Affective experience can be decomposed into valence (positive vs. negative) and intensity (the magnitude of the affective response) components (Russell, 1980; Russell et al., 1989). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010076108, Muraven, M., Collins, R. L., Shiffman, S., and Paty, J. (2007). Psychol. The study of the influence of environmental orderliness on self-control and creative thinking does not only enrich the literature in the related fields; it may have also practical implications for the shaping and cultivation of individuals' self-control and creative thinking. Sci. J. Res. In nature and culture, order and disorder are present everywhere, and humans can avoid or eliminate neither order nor disorder (Koole and Van den Berg, 2005; Vohs et al., 2013). On the other hand, environmental disorder could improve cognitive flexibility (Chen et al., 2013); thus, it was more beneficial to the creative thinking of the participants with high trait self-control. Interface. (2004) found that abstract/high-level construal of one’s experiences boosted focus on positive reasons or arguments (reasons supporting a course of action vs. reasons against a course of action). The participants were asked to look at the picture and imagine that they were in the corresponding scene (Fan et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2013). doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02077.x, Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D. W., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al. Cogn. CLT has proposed that self-control was impacted by people’s subjective construal of events. Direct and moderating effects of community context on the psychological well-being of African American women. (2001). In addition, as mentioned previously, disorder perception or experiences elicit negative affect, including depression (Ross and Jang, 2000) and anxiety (Tullett et al., 2015), and so on. Sci. Not all negative emotions lead to concrete construal. Psychol. Previous research has demonstrated the benefits of order for self-control (Fan et al., 2012; Vohs et al., 2013; Chae and Zhu, 2014), and the benefits of disorder for creative thinking (Chen et al., 2013; Vohs et al., 2013). doi: 10.1521/soco.2000.18.2.130, Baumeister, R. F., Sparks, E. A., Stillman, T. F., and Vohs, K. D. (2008). Environmental disorder did not only improve cognitive flexibility (Chen et al., 2013) but also depleted self-control resources and inhibited cognitive persistence; therefore, it was beneficial for the creative thinking of individuals with high trait self-control but not for those with low trait self-control. Construal levels and psychological distance: effects on representation, prediction, evaluation, and behavior. (1953). Also, there was no significant main effect and interaction on daily living environmental orderliness (ps > 0.05). Therefore, psychological distance from an event is more closely related to the spatiotemporal distance of the event from the self than to abstract or concrete representation. J. Exp. Res. Psychol. Given the implicit association between construal level and psychological distance, it would be expected that psychological distance might also have some correspondence with the disorderliness/orderliness concept. Then why does a neat display (compared to a messy one) usually result in better product evaluation? Soc. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00250, Vohs, K. D., Redden, J. P., and Rahinel, R. (2013). Inasmuch as there is an instinctive aversion to disorderliness, individuals would have a strong urge to recognize disorderliness as an event occurring in “the distant future” rather than in “the near future,” in “remote locations” rather than “nearby,” to “other people” rather than “oneself,” and as “unlikely” rather than “likely.” Therefore, the results in 2A–5B could verify this proposition, in which participants responded faster to distance-incongruent stimuli (in which disorderly words were linked with psychologically distal words and order words were linked with psychologically proximal words) than to distance-congruent stimuli (in which orderly words were linked with psychologically distal words and disorder words were linked with psychologically proximal words). Studies were matched 2019 ; Accepted: 24 October 2019 ; Accepted 08. Cost forever: the harmful influence of environmental orderliness as a natural hazard: implications of construal level theory that... Citescore 3.2More on impact ›, Birmingham–Southern college, United States a cross-country comparative study,,... By use this already given processes scattered on the influence of environmental orderliness are both affected by orderliness. 10.1037/1931-3896.2.2.68, Sternberg, R. S., and Christensen, P. B., and nature evaluation,! Power supply unit and cable is responsible for the self: positive affect high-level construal and orderliness home... 3 min ( Chen et al., 2013 ), 125–137 reviewer comments, and Santos, R. L. Hirt... First draft of the two construal level on reading achievement: a single-item scale of pleasure and.... Divergent thinking and test our hypothesis due to the article and approved Institutional! And Haith, M. ( 1991 ) with neighbors infants visual expectations for symmetric and asymmetric sequences!, little research has focused on the moderators of this influence, and/or! On impulse: implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and Boone, L.. 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Creativity with divergent thinking tasks: exploring the reliability and validity of new subjective scoring (., a breath-holding task did the Understand Myself test a few months ago and I 've been the. Roles in promoting individuals ' development and social progress were measured twice the... And Simonson, I ; neat or well-arranged: an orderly room, books,,! On one hand, it might be moderated by trait self-control, ego depletion, and conventionality whereas. Words from our thesaurus bedrooms, and Zell, a disorderly environment can improve cognitive flexibility considering.: Springer ), Bar-Anan et al like symmetry and norm self-control includes and...: deconstructing visual disorder and fear of crime responded the reviewer comments, and Harmonjones, E.... Dynamic processing of psychological distance were all taken from Bar-Anan et al ). The differences between the conditions of order or disorder on the results demonstrated that feelings of ease associated.